Sunday, October 28, 2018

The Role of Information Technology in Music Lessons

The rapid development and use of information and communication technologies not only opens up new opportunities, but also sets new challenges for the global community. Digital technology has made a kind of revolution, it allows you to digitally combine text, graphic and video, speech and music. On the basis of this technology, powerful new means of knowledge representation and transfer, as well as teaching aids, are being created.

The steady process of the spread of computers in education contributes to a growing understanding of the potential of computerization strategies. Research in the field of cognitive learning allows for a new understanding and development of strategies to promote student learning. As well as to implement new and developed ways of using technological tools and information resources for learning. The form of education changes irreversibly at all stages, from preschool education to higher education .

A characteristic feature of modern general education is the increased attention of teachers to the use of computers as a means of teaching school children. It should be emphasized that personal computers have long become an entirely everyday . And common tool in primary and secondary schools in many foreign countries. They received the greatest popularity in educational institutions of the USA, Great Britain, Holland, Canada, Germany, France, Slovakia, Switzerland.

We will consider the possibilities of using a computer, and, specifically, computer programs in the educational process at music lessons in grades 5-7 in the Kiev Lyceum of International Relations No. 51 . Namely: multimedia technology , which has a great pedagogical potential.

The use of multimedia is especially effective. In those cases, if it is necessary to grasp the concept, see, feel, that is, get an idea of the material more widely. Where the role of visibility is great - pictures of artists, illustrations, intonation in the phrase, analysis of musical styles, etc.  The question of the use of information technology multimedia is not in doubt.

Music programs provide many opportunities for musical education for school children, and their use allows making learning material exciting, interesting and visual.

In music education, a computer is used both to create musical works (music editors) and to expand knowledge of the history and theory of music (various encyclopedic programs) [2].

Analyzing different approaches to the use of computers in the field of music education, today we can distinguish the following areas of its use:

- listening and analysis of musical works;

- Music Creation;

- the study of the history and theory of musical material, which is simultaneously served in the form of text, audio, video;

- create your own music programs;

- obtaining different musical information using the Internet.

At the same time, it can be noted that various computer programs are considered by us as a new form of knowledge presentation that can stimulate the mechanism of cognitive activity in the classroom, as well as develop the student’s interest in its highest form, which is resistant.

Existing programs that can be used for music lessons in secondary schools can be divided into groups.

Musical computer tools

  • Music editors

  • Encyclopedias

  • Game programs

  • Test programs and quizzes

  • Combined programs

Any of the music programs presented allows the complex to solve the main tasks of musical education in adolescents and can be used by the teacher at different stages of training. Depending on the goal that the teacher sets in a lesson in music, computer science or English, the types of programs for studying musical art will be chosen.

Accordingly, the given groups consider computer programs.

1. Music editors offer schoolchildren opportunities to experiment with electronic sounds. A student can create a composition by setting the system of expressive means of music using the program “Note Worthy Composer” (Great Britain).

In fig. 2 depicts a fragment of the melody of the famous New Year's English song “Jingle Bells”, written by students using existing musical symbols in the editor (notes, pauses, rhythm, tempo, etc.). Working in this editor, adolescents learn not only to record familiar melodies, but also to compose their own, selecting tempos, fragments that match the style, number of voices, etc. It should be noted that the performance of songs in English accompanied by a computer is interesting for students.

Other didactic opportunities are revealed in computer programs that can be used in music lessons and even in a foreign language (English), developing students' cognitive interest. With the advent of new tools, it became obvious that information tools are completely transparent from all pedagogical strategies, except for the skill of the teacher himself, who will use them.

2. Encyclopedias Such CD-ROM programs are mainly written as databases and are designed for individual student work with the computer.

Figure 3 shows a fragment of the encyclopedia on the CD “Classical Music”

It illustrates educational material on the work of 63 composers and has in its arsenal 320 pieces of music, many of which are presented in video, performed by the best musicians in the world. This encyclopedia material can be used at different stages of studying the topic: “Composers from different countries of the world”, “Theater”, “Musical Instruments”, etc., which are studied not only in music lessons, but in foreign language lessons. There are many types of such programs in English that are very important for specialized schools that learn languages. At the same time, some students become acquainted with the composer’s works, while others prepare material from his biography, and others study individual musical material by this author and analyze it by genre.

Students are given the following tasks: prepare reports on the material studied on this topic, find musical material, etc. This computer work involves several steps: analysis of the material; this information is complemented by listening to musical fragments, deepening into the history of the creation of these works.

Encyclopedic computer programs can be used on these types of lessons:

  • explanation of the new material (introductory lessons);

  • the formation and assimilation of skills;

  • generalizing;

  • repetition and consolidation of knowledge.

The structure of such lessons will depend on the goal set by the teacher, the information received on the results of learning, the methods and methods of teaching used in the lesson, the level of training and development of students, and the place of computer programs in studying the topic.

3. For the learning process, game music programs are of particular interest , which are very diverse in meaning, structure and form. For example, a program with game elements “ Cartoon Classics” (Classical music from cartoons), which offers students with the help of cartoon characters and music that sounds, to name the cartoon and the author of the music (Fig. 4). These are the “Waltz of the Flowers” by P.I. Tchaikovsky, “Hungarian Rhapsody” by F. List, the aria of “Figaro” by W. Mozart, etc. Such programs help to increase the attention of students, listen more to different music, orient themselves in eras, styles; and the game element, which is present in the program, allows you to make it not boring and intriguing.

The (Fig. 5) shows the menu of this section, with which students work in the classroom, studying the topic: holidays and festivals of the peoples of the world. By clicking on the pictogram of this section, students can listen to music that is traditional for holidays in America: Valentine's Day, the famous song “Happy Birthday to you”, for the autumn holiday Helloween, etc. For our Lyceum of International Relations No. 51, this program represents a special interest in the fact that it gives students the opportunity to get acquainted with the culture of English-speaking countries, their traditions, music, styles, etc.

In the conditions of a shortage of curricula in humanitarian subjects (music, foreign languages) in our country, there is an idea about the use of foreign programs that are more informative and visual, but not methodically strong.

For adolescent students need programs more saturated in the information plan. The proposed idea is implemented through game programs and techniques. For example: intellectual (logical games for searching for connections, patterns, word creation); creating and sounding drawings; tasks that require different options for converting the source material, its location; the task of the creative use of known materials; changes in activities: listening, reading, drawing, singing, etc. using a computer. Using game programs in training, we help students develop such mental operations as analysis, synthesis, generalization, and concrete data classification. These programs help to develop communicative skills, for example, the ability to memorize, recreate and interpret information; to discuss

4. Test programs and quizzes. The programs of this group are developed taking into account the specific purpose and content of the lesson. Often they are created by teachers and students for their school. There are also special quizzes in each program for students to consolidate the material with which they are familiarized.

In our opinion, the most interesting for pupils of the 5th grades is the musical game “The Nutcracker”, in which the authors suggest students to save New Year's gifts from the Mouse King. To do this, they will need not only courage, but learning knowledge and musical ear. If the task is done correctly, the gifts are sent to the New Year tree as beautiful dances from the Nutcracker ballet: Chinese, Indian, Russian dance, flower dance, etc.

5. Combined programs. Programs of this group combine the capabilities of all or several groups of programs. This group includes the CD-ROM program “Frederic Chopin”, which takes students to the extraordinary world of a Polish composer. She gives adolescents a research environment that introduces an element of creativity to develop their imagination and fantasy.

Particular attention should be paid to the program, which was created by a team of employees of the Moscow Conservatory CD-ROM “ P.I. Tchaikovsky. Life and art". In our opinion, this program is distinguished from others by the professional accumulation of educational material necessary for musical education of schoolchildren. This program is being built in the following thematic sections: a short encyclopedia, excursions accompanied by the author’s voice on such sections: life in photographs, a piano in the life of P. Tchaikovsky, world culture and P. Tchaikovsky, a house-museum in Klin, a composer and nature, a Russian estate ; quiz that tests knowledge in three areas: music, biography of the composer, guess the melody. In this program, the authors suggested hints for testing students' knowledge or for clarifying answers.

Essentially new opportunities for the discovery of musical culture by students and teachers are provided by telecommunication technology, namely the INTERNET network.

Today, many schools are studying how best to use the Internet for themselves, and the modern teacher is trying to find the material that will be needed for him and will provide the widest information to schoolchildren about his subject.

Receiving and processing through the Internet of various musical information becomes a new direction in the development of students' cognitive interest in music, as well as one of the forms of studying the world musical art. It contains the reading of texts, articles, works of art, listening to radio programs and musical fragments, analysis and obtaining wide information from all over the world on issues of musical art. And all this is done through the Internet [3].

Let us give some examples of the use of Internet information resources by a music teacher. The teacher can familiarize children with musical instruments from around the world. Having entered the Internet, schoolchildren choose any Web-page on which there is musical information. She, of course, presented in text form. Selecting interesting educational materials, teenagers get acquainted with illustrations, pictures, photos, videos that accompany the text, as well as listen to music.

In fig. 6 presents a fragment of information material received via the Internet , which students can process in a music lesson. Acquaintance with the musical instrument of the symphony orchestra - the violin violin.htmlinvolves reading the material on the history of the origin of this instrument. You can consider its structure, go into the study of the entire group of string-stringed instruments to which it belongs. Listen to music written for violin by various composers.

Such information technology allows the world cultural heritage to be made open to schoolchildren, expanding their access to works and collections of musical art. Already many music museums and opera houses have their own pages on the Internet. They demonstrate and release images of objects, musical instruments on a CD-ROM.

The list of many opera companies represented on the Internet  allows children to familiarize themselves with opera art, enjoy performing works by famous opera stage singers, and learn the theater repertoire. So, on the websites of the Metropolitan Opera (America)  or the Teatro alla Scala Theater (Italy) Scala . You can find photos of opera stars, copies of fragments of musical scores, audio-video recordings of masters of the operatic scene. In the lobby of the museum to get acquainted with unique exhibits (for example, a piano on which Giuseppe Verdi took his first music lessons), view the scene behind the scenes.

Thus, we conclude that the Internet can be used in school music education for:

  • access to modern original teaching materials;

  • a significant increase in the individualization of learning;

  • providing information activities of the teacher and students;

  • development of musical interest of schoolchildren.

Considering the prospects of distance learning, namely, e-mail and the Internet, it can be expected that this form of musical education will become one of the most common in the 21st century, helping students develop their interest in the field of musical art. Also, the Internet provides a real opportunity to expand the didactic potential of the educational process and improve the efficiency of music learning .

Thus, information technologies are the tool that allows teachers to qualitatively change the methods and organizational forms of their work, better preserve and develop students' individual abilities, strengthen interdisciplinary communication in training, and implement a constant dynamic update of the organization of the educational process.
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